Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Why does ice float on top of water rather than sink, like most solids? There are two parts to the answer to this question. First, lets take a look at why anything floats. Then, lets examine why ice floats on top of liquid water, instead of sinking to the bottom. Why Ice Floats A substance floats if it is less dense, or has less mass per unit volume, than other components in a mixture. For example, if you toss a handful of rocks into a bucket of water, the rocks, which are dense compared to the water, will sink. The water, which is less dense than the rocks, will float. Basically, the rocks push the water out of the way or displace it. For an object to be able to float, it has to displace a weight of fluid equal to its own weight. Water reaches its maximum density at 4 C (40 F). As it cools further and freezes into ice, it actually becomes less dense. On the other hand, most substances are most dense in their solid (frozen) state than in their liquid state. Water is different because of hydrogen bonding. AÃ water molecule is made from one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms strongly joined to each other with covalent bonds. Water molecules are also attracted to each other by weaker chemical bonds (hydrogen bonds) between the positively-charged hydrogen atoms and the negatively charged oxygen atoms of neighboring water molecules. As the water cools below 4Ã C, the hydrogen bonds adjust to hold the negatively charged oxygen atoms apart. This produces a crystal lattice, which is commonly known as ice. Ice floats because it is about 9% less dense than liquid water. In other words, ice takes up about 9% more space than water, so a liter of ice weighs less than liter water. The heavier water displaces the lighter ice, so ice floats to the top. One consequence of this is that lakes and rivers freeze from top to bottom, allowing fish to survive even when the surface of a lake has frozen over. If ice sank, the water would be displaced to the top and exposed to the colder temperature, forcing rivers and lakes to fill with ice and freeze solid. Heavy Water Ice Sinks However, not all water ice floats on regular water. Ice made using heavy water, which contains the hydrogen isotope deuterium, sinks in regular water. Hydrogen bonding still occurs, but its not enough to offset the mass difference between normal and heavy water. Heavy water ice sinks in heavy water.
Monday, May 18, 2020
League of Nations was formed after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes. The league of Nation failed, as it lacked the political weight and the legitimacy to carry out tasks. United States and several other countries did not join it because they did not see any personal benefit. The failure led to the outbreak of the Second World War (Mingst and Arreguin 38). It depicts typical human nature that is primary fearful, selfish, and power seeking. Individuals are organized in states, each of which acts in a unitary way in pursuit of its own national interest, defined in terms of power. Power, in turn, is primarily thought of in terms of the material resource necessary to physically harm other states (Mingst and Arreguin 79). Under the anarchy system, states can rely only on themselves to increase power. This can be achieved by two logical pathways that are war or balance (dividing the power of real or potential rivals by means of alliance politics or economic sanctions, or multiplying their own power by raising armies, manufacturing fearsome weaponry) (Mingst and Arreguin 80). United Nations was formed in 1945 to ensure the rights of individual are respected, through national human rights protection systems. Currently 192 countries are members of the United Nation. Post World War II, the United Nations has become a representation of peace, and balance of power across the nations. Even after the formation of theShow MoreRelated The League Of Nations And Its Impact On World Peace Essay947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconclusion about the League of Nations: despite all of President Woodrow Wilsons efforts, the League was doomed to fail. I feel this was so for many reasons, some of which I hope to convey in the following report. From the day when Congress voted on the Fourteen Points, it was obvious that the League had a very slim chance of being passed in Congress, and without all of the World powers, the League had little chance of surviving. On November 11, 1918 an armistice was declared in Europe.Read MoreThe League Of Nations And The United Nations1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction The League of Nations and the United Nations are two unique forms of international governance created by world powers out of the same necessityÃ¢â¬âneeding a better format of managing global conflict. However, both international organizations were created, structured, and operated under very different circumstances. For instance, the League of Nations was created during towards the end of World War I, when nations were looking for a governing body to address future global conflicts. SimilarlyRead MoreIntergorvernmental Organizations and International Relations1847 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesalso termed as IGOs, as well as international organizations. These organizations are formed by sovereign states that share a common interest or goal. They can be formed for security reasons, like the United Nations, economic issues, like the World Bank and IMF, for regional purposes, like the European Union, for cultural purposes, like the Arab League, etc. These organizations serve a functional pu rpose in the world to help with stability, international law, foreign policy, and the unification betweenRead MorePeaceful Solutions And Conflicting Nations After World War II1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconflicting nations. After World War I there were many treaties that were signed to keep peace between nations, that lead into World War II. After World War II there were multiple conferences held to create ways to keep peace between nations. One of the major reasons the war started and continued on was because countries did not like what other countries were doing or they were unhappy with the outcome of World War I. World War II was caused when Britain and France declared war on GermanyRead MoreThe Causes Of The First World War1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe causes of the First World War were similar and differed from the causes of the Second World War politically, economically, and socially. Both of these significant, historical events were substantially affected by the interaction of dominating societies during this time period. During the First World War, these leading societies were the European authorities of Britain, Germany, and Austria, with slight assistance from the U.S. However, the United States allocated their full engagement duringRead MoreEssay on The Formation of the United Nations953 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Formation of the United Nations Before the United Nations organization was formed we lived in a world of uncertainty where any misunderstanding could lead to a massive world war. Since the United Nations was formed, many issues have been resolved and a number of new groups have been created to make the world more peaceful. The United Nations intentions are aimed for the future race of people. Their hope is that one day we can all set aside our differences and live together as one. HumanRead MoreEssay on Aftermath of Wwi Leads to Wwii1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAftermath of WWI Leads to WWII Prior to the First World War, Europe was the world center of industry and capital. Massive death, destruction, and resentment after World War I left most countries unable to recover to a normal existence and damaged the world economy. The economic collapse and the political instability caused by World War I eventually led to the rise of fascism in Europe. Forceful dictators in Italy, Germany, and Japan took advantage of these problems to seize power by territorialRead MoreThe League Of Nations : An Organization1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organisation founded on January 10, 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labourRead MoreHow Responsible Was Hitler for the Outbreak of Ww21219 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHitler was responsible for the outbreak of World War 2(1939) to a significant extent. The many things that he did like going against the Treaty of Versailles which included the rearmament of Germany, his Lebensraum policy where he wanted to take over neighboring lands and gain more territory for Germany and his disrespect to the treaties he made. While Hitler was a great cause for World War 2, he was not the sole reason. The Great Depression, the weak leaders of the League of Nations and theirRead MoreWoodrow Wilson s Vision For A League Of Nations1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesliberty that underlined democracy was starting to look vulnerable in the current world s state. It was at the address at Independence Hall, that Wilson defined the position of liberty and its place in the world when he said; Ã¢â¬Å" I earnestly believe in the democracy not on ly of America but of every awakened people that wishes and intends to govern and control its own affairs. Ã¢â¬Å" His perspective of the ownership of liberty would shaped how he would help foreign nations. Through the proposal of the 14
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Why is Medium Message? Marshall McLuhan, a technological determinist, says in his book Ã¢â¬ËMedium is the massageÃ¢â¬â¢ that the most widespread modern media influence how humans think, act and perceive the world around them. He states that the medium significantly influences the message that people will receive, and thus, the same message is perceived by the same individual in several ways if he receives them in a different way. The expression the medium is the message means that recipient receives messages in different ways depending on how they are presented to him. The message of any medium or technology is the change of scale, rhythm or pattern it introduces into human life. Society determines the medium in which the message will be transmitted (McLuhan). Society is responsible for both the transmission and reception of messages. Technology does not determine, but rather provides another way of people expressing. The effectiveness of journalistic message depends on the nature of relations between the three aesthetic terms, defining integrity of the text: the author, the words, and the genre. Only appropriately chosen format of presentation, its stylistic means, structuring, actually chosen words, and authorÃ¢â¬â¢s charisma, which appears through the text, ensure the success of the perception of the author s position and the creating public opinion. Media and Globalization Mutual Impact On a global communication space, not only is the globalization of the mass media tendency anShow MoreRelatedEssay about Benefits of Massage Therapy998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbeen among people against massage therapy is that massage is not of any use in medical terms, it is just brought forward by elite people for relaxing. This argument is completely false because it has been proved by scientists that massage therapy has been one of the major methods for treatment for more than 2000 years. More over massage therapy has much positive significance. This therapy in massage parlors and spas also has important significance. Undoubtedly, massage therapy is used to make peopleRead MoreThe Supernatural Model of Abnormal Behaviours Essay1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOver many years, people have been inquisitive about abnormal behaviours within their societies and beyond. A typical question pertaining to these behaviours is, Ã¢â¬Å"why is he behaving this way.Ã¢â¬ According to DSM-IV-TR, abnor mal behaviour is defined as a person who experiences behavioural, cognitive or emotional dysfunction, associated with distress and atypical in his cultural context (Barlow, Durand, 2009). However, the quest for answers and remedies has drifted people from scientific models to traditionalRead MoreThe Medium Is The Message958 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Marshall McLuhans, the Medium is the Message, he claims that the medium is more important than the message. I agree with his statement that the medium is more important that the message, because it is not what we say it is how we say it that matters most. The words we use are not as important as the way we choose to say them. I think that sometimes it can seem that what people are saying can be more important but it truly is how it is being perceived that is the most important part of the messageRead MoreIndian Head Massage Assignment2161 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIndian Head Massage Assignment 1. Explain the organisations service times for Indian head massage and the importance of completing the service in a commercially viable time. A. An Indian head massage should take 45 minutes, if the treatment is completed under the viable time, the client will feel like theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not getting their moneys worth or the best out of the treatment, it also prevents times wastage and ensures that an effective appointment is in place. 2. Explain how to set up the work areaRead MoreEssay about Provide Body Massage5706 Words Ã |Ã 23 Pagesventilation. c. Why is it important to not discriminate against clients with illnesses and disabilities? As a provider you have a legal responsibility to ensure clients are not discriminated against on the groundÃ¢â¬â¢s of disability. You cannot provide a lesser standard. They are protected by The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 d. At what age is an individual classed as a minor and how does this differ nationally? A minor is someone under the age of 16. e. Why is it important toRead MoreThe Medium Is The Massage2296 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Medium is the Massage. When reading this title it has both a physical and mental effect on people of todays society hence what happens when a person accidently reads the word Ã¢â¬Å"massageÃ¢â¬ as message. Marshall Mcluhan, the author of The Medium is the Massage, has so much meaning in his novels title. Almost everybody who reads his book would not think much of the title at all, but with just those 5 words he teaches a whole new way to view things. He states that the medium is the message and the messageRead MoreThe Common Reasons Of Lao Illness Essay1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhen being seen by US providers. Both Buddhist Laos and Hmong Christians maintain a belief in a frightened caused illness. Or symptoms of an illness that can occur after a traumatic and frightful event. Massage, soul-calling, and/or prayer by a priest or shaman can be used as technical treatments. Why the Hmong believe that illnesses can be naturally occurring, the belief of the underlying cause is due to an imbalance in their metaphysical surroundings. A general similitude would be the American familiarityRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Carolinas Therapeutic Spa1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesat CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Therapeutic Spa are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Medical treatment performed by medical licensed practitioner - Injections - Botox - Laser treatment - Scar revision - Fillers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Face treatment - Peels - Dermabrasion and Microdermabrasion Ã¢â¬ ¢ Waxing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dry sauna Ã¢â¬ ¢ Massages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Body treatments - Body wraps Ã¢â¬ ¢ Nails treatments - Pedicure and manicure Situational Analysis Situational analysis is a collection of methods that managers uses to analyze a business internal and external involvement to understand the organizationRead More I Am Deaf Essay1177 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesdonÃ¢â¬â¢t know if I am more nervous because I am not really deaf and I feel guilty or because I am different from the other customers and I will be labeled as disabled. I am not looking forward to placing my order. I order a medium decaf coffee by holding up a notebook with the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Medium Decaf Coffee, Please.Ã¢â¬ The young man at the counter does a quick transformation from a confident good looking guy to a bumbling embarrassed guy. He says,Ã¢â¬ yes sirÃ¢â¬ three or four times. He spends a long time giving changeRead MoreIs All Media Exist? Invest Our Lives With Artificial Perceptions And Arbitrary Values ``1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesartificial perceptions and arbitrary valuesÃ¢â¬ . (Marshall McLuhan) Introduction of text 1: The truth in media has so influenced in every aspect of life and it lives with us like it is a part of our culture as McLuhan mentioned in the essay The Medium is the massage. Introduction of text 2: Catherine bush stated in the essay ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all real, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not all true, we should read fiction as fiction not as an autobiography of the writer as it creates the autobiographical fallacy. Introduction to text 3:
Gloria Nealy Mrs. Robinson English 4 June 5 , 2015 The English Renaissance The English Renaissance, often known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Golden AgeÃ¢â¬ , reflected the rebuild and change of the era prior to it. It was a cultural and artistic movement beginning in the late 15th century and lasted until the 17th century. The English Renaissance was a powerful, inspiring and known as the greatest era of British history being held for the success of literary, cultural and scientific inventions that signaled expanded new ideas and led to achievements. Renaissance ideas in England slowly impacted a lot , making the second half of the 16th century, the Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabethan EraÃ¢â¬ , the highlight of the English Renaissance. The time of Shakespeare was also the time of one of the most memorable monarchs, Elizabeth I. The reign of Queen Elizabeth was a comparison with the English Renaissance partially being held for itÃ¢â¬â¢s gloom. During her reign the structuralism of nationalism in England rapidly increased. EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation of having a strong naval power ca me from their defeat of the Spanish Armada. The Queen proclaim that naval strength was a high priority. Everything began when she risked war with Spain by supporting the Sea Dogs who stole the Spanish merchants ships which carried gold and silver from the new world. When the Spaniards finally decided to invade and conquer England, a disaster evolved. Superior English shipsShow MoreRelatedThe Elizabethan Era: Years of Grand Development838 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesImagine if a certain time period did not exist, never happened, would the world still be the same? What is the importance of Elizabethan England Ã¢â¬âthe Renaissance period? Benson notes, Ã¢â¬Å"During the early Renaissance, an era spanning from the fourteenth century to the seventeenth century, the arts in Europe blossomed into bold new forms, blending the philosophy and creative forms of the ancient civilizations of Rome and Greece with contemporary European styleÃ¢â¬ (Benson 142). The Elizabethan Era is greatlyRead MoreElizabethan Poetry941 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesElizabethan Poetry I Drama dominates our syllabus but the Renaissance was a Golden Age not just for English drama, but also for English poetry. But what was English poetry? George PuttenhamÃ¢â¬â¢s The Arte of English Poesie (1589) and Sir Philip SidneyÃ¢â¬â¢s The Defense of Poesie (1595): early attempts to think about English poetry as a distinct national tradition. Puttenham and Sidney were concerned to build a canon and help shape English poetry into a tradition capable of rivalling more prestigiousRead MoreMiddle Ages And Renaissance Era1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMiddle Ages and Renaissance Era The Middle Ages were not known for their choice in government, ways of living, or their views on the Church. Rather, they were known for making the best of what was given to the, which was music. During the early Middle Ages, peasants stayed bound to the land they were given, but had to depend on landlords for protection. Also, many social bonds were ties of kinship, which lead to the emergence of feudalism among the warrior aristocracy (The Middle Ages: Feudal LifeRead MoreThe Elizabethan Er The Golden Age Of English History1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJamie Berquist Carolyn Crumpler World History (E Block) March 13, 2015 The Elizabethan Era is depicted as the golden age in English history. Ã This age was marked as a renaissance which inspired English exploration, international expansion and naval triumph over EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s hated Spanish enemies ( Elizabethan Era.). Queen Elizabeth I was queen from 1558 until her death in 1603, marking the Elizabethan Era. Ã Her father was King Henry VIII, who ruled from 1509 until his death in 1547, and was succeededRead MoreElizabethan Poetry Essay582 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages It was during the Elizabethan age that England felt the complete effect of the Renaissance. There occurred a revival of the old and classical literature of Greece and Rome and this was manifested in the poetry of the age. The Elizabethan age was characterized by an extreme spirit of adventure, aestheticism and materialism which became the characteristic features of Elizabethan poetry. Many poets displayed their skill in versification during this time and England came to be called T he NestRead MoreCompare And Contrast Different Literature Periods1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEnglish Literature Periods Literature by definition according to Oxford dictionary is the written works, especially those considered of superior or lasting artistic merit. Literature has classified into several periods. Which has affected by the surrounding events in the society in each period like economic levels, war and peace. Literature is considering as a human creation is differing from the other because of the changing in the society and language development in every period. This essayRead MoreIslams Influences on the Modern World1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAfrica). Islam is currently the second most practiced religion globally. Throughout the Middles ages and the centuries leading up to them Islam was one of few lifestyles which encouraged culture, art and an open state of mind, making it a perfect breeding ground for scientific advancement and progression of the arts. Islam has shared some of the greatest discoveries and revolutions of the pre-modern age, all of which have undoubtedly assisted in the construction of the western world we inhabit. OneRead MoreMusic in Elizabethan England817 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe types of Music or Songs were back in the Elizabethan ages/era in England. But first, there is a minor description about the Elizabethan era and how Queen Elizabeths rule in England influenced the music back then. Minor description because the full description would be incredibly long. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play the twelfth night, and the music in there will also be included in this essay. The Elizabethan era was a very important time in english history.Queen Elizabeth the first was the royal majestyRead MoreTheater During The Elizabethan Era Essay2090 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOwen Hatch Victoria Kendall English 4A 13 October 2016 Theater in the Elizabethan Era When people think about theater in the Elizabethan Era, people usually think of William Shakespeare first. The Elizabethan theater was so much more than just Shakespeare. Theater In this time was not only plays, but included things such as bear baiting, cock fighting and public executions (Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabethan TheatreÃ¢â¬ ). The Elizabethan Era was during the reign of Queen Elizabeth which lasted from 1558 until 1603 (SingmanRead MoreChap 15: Europe Transformed- Reform and State Building1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschallenge to the authority of the Catholic Church, in which by no means was the first crisis in churchs 1500 year history. 2. 14th century- severe economic reversals and social upheavals 3. 15th century- Renaissance: a revival of arts and letters 4. 16th century- Reformation: religious renaissance 5. Absolutism (absolute monarchy)- most evident during the reign of Louis XVI 6. 17th century - absolute and limited monarchy were the poles of state building 7. What were the main tenets of Lutheranism
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION PROJECT APPRAISAL Every organisation has to examine the viability of each project before it provides financial assistance. It has to ensure that the project will generate sufficient funds on the resources invested in it. With the opening of new factory outlet, the study of viability of a project has become more vital for financing a project. Project appraisal the process of critical evaluation of all the six faces of the project appraisal namely: 1. Technical analysis 2. Financial analysis 3. Legal analysis 4. Market analysis 5. Management appraisal 6. Ecological appraisal. 1 Technical Analysis: Technical analysis of a project is essential to ensure that necessary physical facilities required for production are available and the best possible alternative is selected to procure them. Technical analysis considers following aspects. o Manufacturing process/technology o Product mix o Plant capacity o Location and site o Machineries and equipments o Plant layout o Work schedule o Structure and civil works. Raw materials: The potential availability of raw materials cost of collection and quality of raw materials. Utilities (Power, Water, Fuel, etc): These are essential to run a company. The availability of power, water, fuel, etc. should be considered whether sufficient utilities are available or not. Manufacturing process/technology: The selection of manufacturing process/technology depends on quality of the product required, its end use, latest developments and principal inputs. Product Mix: Product mix is dependent on market requirements. Product mix holds quality, performance, or innovative features. While planning the production facilities of the firm, some flexibility with respect to the product mix mist is sought. Plant capacity: Plant capacity refers to the volume of number of units that can be manufactured during a given period. The following factors have an influence on the plant capacity. o Technology requirement o Input constraints o Investment costs o Market conditions o Resources of the firm o Government policies Location and site: Location refers to a fairly broad area like a city, and industrial zone, or a coastal area. Site refers to a specific piece if land where the project would be set up. Location of the project depends on the land availability of raw materials, market, labor, water, power, effluent disposal, good infrastructure, communication facilities etc. Procurement of plant and machinery: For procuring the plant and machinery, orders with different reputed machinery suppliers are on turnkey basis. The factors to be considered in selecting the suppliers of plant and machinery are the quality of machinery, the level of technology sophistication, the expected delivery schedules, and the required performance guarantees. Plant layout: Should consider factors as flows of materials, storage, inter linked storage yards, utility service systems, future expansion alternatives, disposal of industrial effluent, etc. Work schedule: The purpose of work schedule is: o To anticipate problems likely to arise during the installation phases and suggest possible solutions. o To develop a plan of operations covering the initial period. o To establish the phasing of investments taking into accounts the availability of finance. Civil work o Site preparation and development: o Cost of land o Legal charges for registration o Cost of levelling o Cost of roads formation Building and structures: o Main factory buildings o Other civil works for auxiliary services o Administrative buildings o Quality control laboratory and RD building o Go downs and drying yards o Security and time office o Pump and pump house o Compound wall/fencing etc o Sump tank and overhead tank o Cost of building electrification, water supply, sanitary fittings etc. 2 Legal Analysis: The collateral properties, guarantees and other legal legalities with respect to the regulations of the government will be analysed and this creates basis for further processes for the financial assistance. Financial Analysis: Financial appraisal seeks to ascertain whether the proposed project will be functionally viable in the sense of being able to meet the burden of servicing debt and whether the proposed project will satisfy the return/expectations of those who provide funds Financial appraisal involves the following terms. o Capital cost of projects and sources of finance o Financial projections -Cash flow and profitability estimates o Ratio analysis o Breakeven point o Discounted cash flow techniques-net present value and internal rate of return. Capital cost Estimation of the capital cost of a project provides the basic information to decide its pattern of financing and profitability. If the cost of the project is not estimated correctly, the preparation of cash flow and profitability estimates will be futile exercise because the amount of depreciation, interest and dividend will change with the change in capital cost of the project. An entrepreneur has to tie up the resources according to the estimates of the cost of the project. If there is an overrun in the cost of the project, the entrepreneur may find it difficult to arrange for additional resources and it may delay the implementation of the project, which will lead to further overrun in the capital cost. Sometimes Financial institutions and banks are taking an undertaking from entrepreneurs to meet the cost of overrun, if any, in the implementation of the project. But such an undertaking does not have practical meaning. Many a times an entrepreneur is not in a position to bring additional resources to complete the project and safeguard the money already invested in the project. Over estimation of the cost of the project is also equally bad as under estimation. If the cost of a project is over estimated the organizations have to make unnecessarily higher commitments and promoters may divert resources for other purposes. Realistic estimation of capital cost of a project is necessary not only in the interest of entrepreneurs but also in the interest of financial institutions if a loan is taken. Details of the capital cost of the project and methods of appraisal: Items to be included: ? Land and site development ? Building and civil works ? Plant and machinery o Imported machinery Indigenous machinery ? Engineering and consultancy fee ? Miscellaneous fixed assets ? Preliminary and pre-operative expenses ? Provision for contingencies Estimate of working capital margin After the acquisition of fixed assets that unit has to acquire the current assets to run the wheels of the industry-working capital is required for acquiring current assets and timely arrangements shall be made for adequate working capital to start working for the unit immediately after the implementation. The cost of project should include adequate margin for working capital depending on the nature of activity. Requirements of working capital differ widely from order placed. Units working on job order basis require very little working capital whereas solvent extraction plants, fabrication units where high level of inventory has to be maintained and in respect of imported raw material huge working capital is required. Calculate total requirement of working capital on the basis of expected production in the first year, if probability estimates of first year indicate cash loss, take working capital requirement on the basis of production for second or third year when the project is likely to generate profit. The level of raw materials, consumable stores, goods in process, finished well and debtors should be decided keeping in view of production requirements, process time and practice prevailing in the industry. 25% of the total working requirements should be financed by long term resources and included in the capital cost of project. Sources of finance After assessing the capital cost of the project, the company have to decide the pattern of financing the capital cost during construction period. A project can be financed by one of more than of the following sources. o Issue of ordinary/preference shares Issue of secured debentures o Issue of convertible debentures and bonds o Loans, subsidy or development loans/sales tax But at Aditya Brila Aluminium Gallery it has been financed by a loan taken by lic India. Financial projections Financial projections include profitability estimates, (estimates of working results) cash flow statements and projected balance sheets. They are inter-related and prepared on the basis of cost, sources of finance and various assumptions of profitability estimates. Profitability estimates Profitability estimates are estimates of expected sales realizations and expenses to be incurred by the unit. Excess of sales realizations over expense indicates the expected profit of the unit. Verification of profitability estimates is highly essential for the proper appraisal of a term loan proposal. The company must give a bright picture of his project to enable him to get finance from the bank or financial institutions. It is the duty of the appraising officer to verify and analyze information given to the banker. Various terms included in profitability estimates can be verified according to the checklist given below. o Sales realizations o Raw materials and consumable stores o Utilities (power, Fuel, Water, etc. o Repairs and maintenance o Wages and salaries o Rent, Insurance, etc. o Depreciation o Administrative expenses o Selling expenses o Interest on term loan. Cash flow estimates Cash flow estimates are prepared to ensure that the unit will generate necessary cash with it and will not face liquidity problem. The cash flow estimates include sources of funds and their disposition (u se). While profitability estimates are prepared only from the tear in which the unit is likely to commence production, cash flow estimates are necessary for the construction period also to ensure requirements of the projects. The difference between sources and uses of funds indicates the net cash surplus or deficit arising out of movement of funds in that year. Projected balance sheets Projected balance sheets are prepared on the basis of profitability estimates and cash flow estimates. The position of share capital, term loans, sundry creditors, bank borrowings, current assets, etc. is ascertained at the end of each year according to the movement shown in cash flow and profitability estimates. Preliminary expenses are taken after deducting the amount, which is already written off from the expected profits of the units. Cumulative surplus shown in profitability estimates represents the position of reserves at the end of each year. Closing balance shown in cash flow estimates represents the position of cash and bank balance at the end of each year. Ratio analyses Ratio analysis is a powerful tool of financial analyses. A ratio is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the indicated quotient of two mathematical expressionsÃ¢â¬ . The relationship between two accounting figures expressed mathematically is known as a financial ratio. Ratio indicates the relationship between two or more than two variables. Many important items like sales, profits, net profit debt, equity current assets, current liabilities, etc do not give much information if each figure is studied in isolation. . Ratios are useful for comparative study of various units and also of various years working of the same unit. Ratio can be calculated for the past record as well as for the future. It can be undertaken by analyzing their financial projection. Ratio should be calculated from the figures of balance sheets to study past record and figures of financial projections to study the future. Many ratios can be calculated to study the working of the unit. Following ratios are used in Aditya Brila Aluminum Gallery A. LOAN SAFETY RATIO i. Debt-enquiry ratio ii. Current ratio iii. Debt-service coverage ratio iv. Margin on security B. PRODUCTIVE RATIO i. Capital employed to value of output/sales ii. Capital employed to net value added iii. Investment per worker iv. Productivity per worker C. PROFITABLE RATIO i. Percentage of raw material to value of output ii. Percentage of wages and salaries to value of output iii. Percentage of interest to value of output iv. Percentage of operating profit to sales A. LOAN SAFETY RATIO i. Debt-equity ratio (Term liabilities to owned funds) This ratio indicates the relationship between term liabilities and owned funds and helps in assessing the capital gearing. This relationship describing the lender contribution for each rupee of the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution is called debt-enquiry ratio can be computed as follows: Debt-equity ratio = Total Debts Total equity ii. Current ratio (Current Assets to Current Liabilities The current ratio is a measure of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s short term solvency. It indicates the availability of currency assets in rupee for every one rupee of current liability. The current ratio represents a margin of safety that is a Ã¢â¬Å"cushionÃ¢â¬ of protection for creditors. The higher the current ratio, the greater the margin of safety. Current ratio = Current assets Current liabilities iii. Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) This ratio indicates the capacity of the unit to repay term loan interest there on. The formula calculating this ratio is as under: = Profit after tax+Depreciation+Interest on term and differed credits Installments+Interest on term borrowings and deferred credit iv. Margin on Security Term loans are generally sanctioned against the security of fixed assets. The excess of fixed assets over term loans provides margin on security for term loans. The margin on security can be calculated using the formula to express it as percentage to total assets. Margin on security =Value of fixed assets-Term loan Liabilities Value of fixed assets In case of existing units, fixed assets to be created for implementation of the project are added to the present net fixed assets (gross fixed assets Ã¢â¬â depreciation). Similarly, proposed term loans are added to existing term loans if both have par pass charge on fixed assets. In the case of new units, Proposed fixed assets to be created by the project can be ascertained by deducting following terms from the estimated capital cost of the project. 1. Margin money for working cap 2. start-up cost 3. Estimated cash loss, if it forms a part of the project cost. 4. Preliminary expenses, which are to be written off in ten years. B. PRODUCTIVE RATIO Capital employed to output/sales value It indicates the requirements of the capital for production Capital employed to value of output/sales = Capital employed Value of output/ Sales Capital employed includes: a) Gross fixed assets b) Working capital required Value of output/sales includes net sales realization (net of excise duty and returns) plus the value of closing stocks of finished goods and work-in-progress minus value of opening stock of finished goods and work-in-progress. If no adjustments are made for opening and closing stocks in financial projection, value of output represents the expected net sales realization. Capital employed to net value added It indicates the requirement of capital for increasing the national income. Net value added represents net increase in national income because all direct material inputs and depreciation are deducted from value of output. Capital employed to net value added = Capital employed Net value added Net value added, means value of output minus cost of raw materials, fuels, power, water, consumables, stores, spares and any other direct material and depreciation. Investment per worker It indicates the amount of capital required employing one person Investment per worker = Capital employed Number of workers and salaried employers A. PROFITABILITY RATIOS i. Percentage of raw material to value of output This indicates the comparative importance of raw material to value of output. Percentage of raw material to value of output = Raw materials X 100 Value of output Raw material consumed includes consumption of raw materials Chemicals and bought out components. ii. Percentage of salaries and wages to value of output = Salaries and wages X 100 Value of output iii. Percentage of interest to value of output = Interest X 100 Value of output iv. Percentage of operating profits in sales: This ratio indicates the profitability of sales. Mere increase in sales is not sufficient. Sales should also have a margin of profit. Operating profit is taken before tax but after all other expenses. = Operating profit Sales Operating profit means profit after interest and depreciation but before tax. Discounted cash flow techniques 1. Net present value 2. Internal Rate of Return A project should earn sufficient return, which should be at least equal to the cost of the funds invested in it. If many alternative proposals are available for the investment, the investor should make a comparative study of return of various purposes. Following methods have been suggested for evaluating the profitability of industrial project. 1. Payback method 2. Average Rate of Return method 3. Net present value method 4. Internal Rate of Return Pay-back period method The objective of this method is to ascertain the period required for recovering entire investment made in a project. The cash flow includes new operating profit after adding back to it the amount of depreciation on fixed assets and amortization of intangible assets, if any, less income tax payable during the year. The cash inflow accumulated year by year, until it equals the original investment. The length of time required for total cash inflow to recover the original investment is called the pay back period. Pay-back Period = Initial investment Annual cash flow Average Rate of Return Method Under this method, the entire life of a project is taken into account, unlike the payback period. An average of the annual net operating profits (after depreciation) for the entire life of the project is taken and rate of return on original investment and average investment is calculated. Average investment of one year can be ascertained by taking the average of opening and closing book value of the investment in the year. The grand average of such average investments of all the years is obtained to know the average investment of the project. Average profit is divided by original investment to get the rate of return on them. Average rate of return = Average income Average investment Time Value of Money Discounting Techniques: Pay back method and average rate of return method do not consider the time value of money. The initial amount incurred for acquisition of assets to implement a project and income received from the project in future is given equal importance the above methods. But in fact, the value of money invested in future is not equivalent to the value of money invested today. Net Present Value The NPV method is the classic economic method of evaluating the investment proposals. It is one of the discounted cash flow techniques explicitly recognizing the time value of money. It correctly postulated that cash flow arising at different time periods differ in value and are comparable only when equivalent present values are found. A positive NPV at the cut off rate indicates that the investments in the project gives profit greater than the marginal investment rate or cost o capital and hence proposal can be accepted. Internal Rate of Return Method Internal rate of returns (IRR) method is another discounted cash flow technique which takes into account the magnitude and timing of cash flows. Other terms used to describe the IRR method are yield of and investment, marginal efficiency of capital rate of return over cost, time adjusted rate of return and so on. The internal rate of return can be defined as that rate which equates the present value of cash inflow with present value of cash out flow of an investment. In other words, it is the rate at which the net present value of the investment is zero. Profitability Index (PI) Another method of evaluating the investment proposal is the benefit cost ratio or profitability index (PI). It is the present value of cash inflows, at the required rate of returns to the initial cash outflows of the investment. Profitability index = PV of the cash inflows Initial cash outlay 4. Market and Demand Analysis: The step in project analysis is to estimate the potential size of the market for the product proposed to be manufactured (or service planned to be offered) and get idea about the market share that is likely to be manufactured. Steps in the market analysis: o Situation analysis and specification of objectives o Collection of secondary information o Conduct of market survey o Characterization of the market o Demand forecasting o Market planning Situational and specification of objectives: This involves through understanding of the current factors and future changes that may occur in the aluminum business and in the manufacture of the product for the selected project to be success. Collection of secondary information: This is the data collected for some other purpose but may be useful in the current analysis of the market for the product. This involves data from journals, magazines, newspapers, websites and government organization. E. g. Census of India, Data from IMRB, RBI bulletins Conducting market survey: The market survey basically is a sample survey in which a sample of the product is given to the customer and his views are elicited based on which the success of the product is determined. The second type of the market survey is through questionnaire in which a few questions are asked and the views are elicited. The important thing to be remembered is to have a clear idea about the target population. Characterization of the product: Based on the information gathered from the secondary and primary sources the characteristics may be analyzed in terms of the following factors or the character. o Effective demand in the past and the present o Break down of demand o Price o Methods of distribution o Consumers o Supply and competition Demand forecasting: The demand for the product may be forecasted either through the subjective or through the objective methods Subjective methods |Objective methods | |Jury method |Census method | |Delphi method |Statistical survey | | |Analysis based on secondary data | | |Chain Command | | |Cause and effect model | | |Economical model | | |Lead indicator | Market planning: Market planning is most important aspect in market demand analysis. A suitable market plan should be developed to reach a desired level of market penetration. It should cover distribution, pricing, promotion, and service. 5 Management Appraisals: In a project appraisal, appraisal of management is very important aspect. A project, which is considered technically feasible, economically viable and financially sound, may run into difficulties if sound and efficient management do not back it. The person behind the project is very important. It is said that a second grade project in the hands of first grade management is better than a first grade project in the hands of second grade management. Proper evaluation of management is an essential part of project appraisal. However it is often difficult to form a judgment regarding future management as the time of project appraisal. Evaluation of management is an art and no formula available. However, the projects appraiser should consider the experience of the promoter, educational background and enthusiasm. 6 Ecological Analysis: In recent years, environmental concerns have assumed a great deal of significance and rightly so. Ecological analysis should be done particularly for major projects, which have significant ecological implications like power plants and irrigation schemes and environmental polluting industries. Aluminum gallery is a very eco friendly organization it reuse the products. INDUSTRY PROFILE INTRODUCTION Aluminum Industry in India is a highly concentrated industry with the top 5 companies constituting the majority of the countrys production. With the growing demand of aluminum in India, the Indian aluminum industry is also growing at an enviable pace. In fact, the production of aluminum in India is currently outpacing the demand. Though Indias per capita consumption of aluminum stands too low (under 1 kg) comparing to the per capita consumptions of other countries like US Europe (range from 25 to 30 kgs), the demand is growing gradually. In India, the industries that require aluminum most include power (44%), consumer durables, transportation (10-12%), construction (17%) and packaging etc. Background Over the years aluminum has emerged as an ideal substitute for conventional building materials like wood or steel. Today it is emerging as one of the most preferred material for home and industry as it is strong, light in weight and corrosion resistant. Also it retains its finish and hence looks as good as new for years. Moreover itÃ¢â¬â¢s environmental friendly and enjoys high value in the market. The Indian aluminum market in India was 800,000 tons in 2003-04, approximately 3 per cent of the world market of 29. 5 million tons. The major consuming segments in India are electrical transmission conductors, transport, building and construction, consumer durables and packaging. In India, the per capita consumption of aluminum is barely 1 kg compared with the world average of 5 kg and the western world average of 20 kg. Worldwide, aluminum usage in buildings has grown tremendously. The market for aluminum in India, particularly for building and construction, has not grown to the desired level. This is largely because building and construction products based on aluminum are fabricated by small and medium scale manufacturers, who play only the price variable and have felt compelled to supply lower-end products which do not build markets. Aluminum Production in India India is worlds fifth largest aluminum producer with an aluminum production competence of around 2. 7 million tones, accounting almost 5% of the total aluminum production in the world. India is also a huge reservoir of Bauxite with a Bauxite reserve of 3 billion tones. The Consumption After a stagnant consumption of primary aluminum in India from the end of 1990s to 2002 (when the consumptions were between 500 Ã¢â¬â 600 KT), it started rising sharply since 2002. The consumption reached at 1,080 KT in 2006. The consumption of aluminum in India is dominated by the industries like power, infrastructure, and transportation etc. The Major Players The Indian aluminum industry is dominated by four or five companies that constitute the majority of Indias aluminum production. Following are the major players in the Indian aluminum industry: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hindustan Aluminum Company (HINDALCO) Ã¢â¬ ¢ National Aluminum Company (NALCO) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bharat Aluminum Company (BALCO) Ã¢â¬ ¢ MALCO Ã¢â¬ ¢ INDAL Hindalco Industries It was set up in 1958, is under the Aditya Birla Group. Its businesses include the manufacture of Copper and Aluminum and in both; the company is a leader in the industry. The Hindalco Industries Ltds market value is US$ 2. 6 billion and it has around 13,675 The Company Hindalco Industries (commissioned in 1962) has its facility for Aluminum at Renukoot in eastern U. P. Today, the company has grown to become Indias biggest producer of integrated Aluminum and ranks top in the global sect or as the producer of low cost top quartile. The net operating and sales revenues of the Hindalco Industries Company had amounted to Rs 42,737 million in 2005-2006; while the next year it stood at Rs. 46,779 million. The various Aluminum products manufactured by the Hindalco Industries are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Primary Aluminum Ã¢â¬ ¢ Alumina Chemicals Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wire Rods Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rolled Products Ã¢â¬ ¢ Alloy Wheels Growable markets: Hindalco has identified segments (and sub-segments) that are growable through its market driving efforts. These are kitchen foils, wheels, transportation and building / construction. For discerning consumers keen on investing in lifestyle products to lend a refreshingly elegant look to their ambience, aluminum is fast emerging as a real material substitute. What is changing the Aluminum Fabrication industry: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Entry of foreign players Ã¢â¬ ¢ Widespread use of Structural glazing Composite panels Ã¢â¬ ¢ Exponential growth of the organized real estate companies offering quality homes Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use of designed / imported window systems and hardware Ã¢â¬ ¢ No. of fabricators with Excise registration A growing divide between premium and low priced products Ã¢â¬â on features, quality service COMPANY PROFILE Nautilus interior solutions The Bangalore based interior firm with 12 years experience in interior solutions has taken up the rights of The Aluminum gallery in Karnataka and have freedom to promote in all the markets which donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the presence of a franchisee. Nautilus interior solutions have implemented hundreds of projects in the past, for the leading builders and architects in Karnataka and abroad. For the firm it was a natural progression after seeing the opportunity and consumer shift in the market. The firm has been partnered by the founder of Nautilus interior solutions Mr Syed Shuaib . To promote and market the Aluminum products they have set up a contemporary retail gallery at Richmond town. There is also a back end office for designing and administration of the firm. Aluminum gallery: This is an initiative by Hindalco to promote the customers products and create new markets through pro-active partnerships. The Aluminum Gallery is the first of its kind in the commodity business. With the launch of this innovative concept, Hindalco aims to boost its sales by giving its customers a hands-on-experience while shopping for their aluminum needs. The Company also hopes that the gallery will lead to co-branding, marketing and promotion opportunities with quality manufacturers. Hindaclo has always been in the forefront of promoting the use of aluminum in everyday life which is why Hindlaco has chosen to make a range of quality of products available under one single roof The Aluminum Gallery. The Aluminum Gallery offers builders and architects a unique opportunity to explore new dimensions for design and impart to their creations. Brands showcased at the moment: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Alutec windows and doors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hunter Douglas Ã¢â¬â False ceilings, Louvers, Cladding and other architectural products Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hindalco Everest: Aluminium roofing sheets, Truss, Fazards. With its tie up with a German brand, Novellus Everlast is also introducing premium products. Ã¢â¬ ¢ JVS Werner: Aluminium Ladders Ã¢â¬ ¢ Infina engineering: Trivison hoardings Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mosquito mesh: Fine fit Ã¢â¬ ¢ Southern Aluminium Glazing: Architectural glazing Alutec The leading brand from Italy and a highly reputed manufacturer of window doors and accessories, offers an extensive range of high quality windows and doors in India. The aluminum extrusions are from Hindalco, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest vertically integrated aluminum company. Alutec invented Ã¢â¬Å"RÃ¢â¬â¢ system Ã¢â¬â ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s best know and widely used architectural system, comprising quality Aluminum extruded profiles, accessories and gaskets. It is well known for its innovative designs and extensive range of standard and customized architectural products. From raw material through production, constant quality control and rigorous testing in Alutec in-house laboratories enable consistent high quality standards. In India critical components are sourced from Italy and carefully combined with high quality aluminum extrusions from Hindalco, which are both stylish and long lasting. Alutec, known for its innovation and cutting edge technology, has been launching a range of products every year to meet the demands of the market. VISION STATEMENT To be a premium aluminums major, global in size and reach, with a passion for excellence. MISSION STATEMENTS To relentlessly pursue the creation of superior shareholder value by exceeding customer expectation profitable, unleashing employee potential and being a responsible corporate citizen adhering to our values. VALUES Integrity Honesty in every action Commitment Doing whatever it takes to deliver, as promised Passion Missionary zeal arising out of an emotional engagement with work. Seamlessness Thinking and working together across functional silos, hierarchy levels, businesses and geographies. Speed Responding to stakeholder with a sense of urgency. PRODUCT PROFILE Aluminum Windows and doors The window and door market is heavily dependent on both the house building and the repair and maintenance markets. Although modern double-glazed windows and doors were first developed in substantial volumes for the replacement market, they are now also widely sold to the new build market. But today the important business has to be won in the commercial sector, where offices and retail projects have a high demand for windows. Types of doors and windows Windows Ã¢â¬â Casement Top link Sliding Tilt and Turn Sialwood (wood aluminum) Sliding and Folding Doors- Casement Sliding Sliding and Folding Cladding Sheets STRUCTURAL GLAZING While large energy saver buildings have aluminum structures holding up glass. Its has become a popular product in the corporate buildings EVERLASTINS ALUMIUNM ROOFING SHEETS Over the years, aluminum has fast emerged as the substitute for conventional roofing material for home and industry. Everlasting aluminum roofing sheets from hindalco industry limited, is leaders when comes to aluminum roofing solutions in India. In addition to world class quality, you can also enjoy infinite benefits when you switch to everlasting aluminum roofing sheets. ALUMINUM LADDER These ladders are manufactured from high tensile aluminum alloy and are ideal for domestic as well as industrial and electrical maintenance. With special features like steps with non-slip ribbed surface, non-skid rubber shoes. Light in weight, easy to handle, elegant in look and highly economical in the long run. A versatile serviceable multipurpose ladder, rigid, sturdy and slim in look with exceptionally strong structure, designed with specific requirements. These ladders are highly compact and space saver. FALSING CEILINGS False Ceilings in India are a relatively new concept but definitely a huge potential market. The usual problems pertaining to dirt, hygiene factor, expenses and maintenance are resolved by the use of False Ceiling boards or Tiles. DEPARTMENTAL STUDY The CEO and the Managing Director: Mr Syed Shuaib The Managing Director, a full time Executive takes care of day-to-day administration of the organization. All decision is taken by him or has been consulted by him. To assist the Managing Director, have 2 Executive Directors (Marketing and Technical) 4 General Managers (Designers, Fabricators, administration, sales and technical). The technical department consists of 3 fabricators under each fabricator they are 10 Ã¢â¬â 20 labors. There is a designing team which consists of expert designers whose bring out innovative designs Marketing and sales team works efficiently with growing competition and demand, headed by the marketing executive. The finance department is headed by the senior accountant of the company. There are 2 legal advisor of the company who take care of the documentation and legal formalities of the company. AREA OF OPERATION Aditya Brila The Aluminum Gallery has its outlet all over India and its head office at Mumbai. QUALITY SYSTEM PROCEDUERS Ã¢â¬ ¢ To provide quality products and related services on a continuous basis. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To continually upgrade our products and services. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To motivate and involve employees to achieve the set organizational growth targets. To encourage the employees to upgrade and enhance the knowledge and skills through effective Training and Development. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To transform the organization to a customer centric Institution Growth prospects The potential of the m arket is huge and untapped because of the unorganized players and rise in income amongst the middle class families who are keen on having reliable products for their houses. What will change the industry further: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Increased acceptance of premium double glazed windows Ã¢â¬ ¢ Factory fabricated windows as a norm Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consolidation in the industry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Retail sale of windows Ã¢â¬â in malls DIY outlets Ã¢â¬ ¢ Standards for Aluminum windows Ã¢â¬ ¢ Patents unique designs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Standardization of sizes Ã¢â¬ ¢ Service: Delivery and post delivery Focus area months of operation and marketing done by the promoters clearly indicate that the window market has a huge potential in this region. FenestaÃ¢â¬â¢s sale in Bangalore itself is 130 crore, which translates into 65% sales turnover of the company. The indications and the enquiries guarantee that the chosen category has enormous opportunities. The initial discussion with leading builders and prominent architects also emphasize the need for an organized player with cutting edge design and technology which can grow in the market. With globalization and transmission of fashion catching up, domestic consumers, too, have plumped for aluminum as the preferred choice for home products. Marketing of the windows so far Nautilus interior solutions has been able to bag orders worth Rs 45,00,000 in the last 2 months of operations. Most of them have been implemented. The customers include the prestigious builders like Salarpuria and some of the leading architects in Bangalore. This has been achieved without much spending in marketing or employing professionals to market the product. Order enquiries The order enquiries so far have been worth Rs 4. 5 crore. 90% of the enquiries are from 4 major players in the market. The builders in discussion are Divyashree builders, Salarpuria builders, Gopalan builders and G corp. The need of the hour The large enquiries and negotiations clearly indicate the market potential. But Alutec production in India is not geared up to meet this kind of demand. This clearly gives Nautilus interior solutions opportunity to manufacture the windows and doors to cater the market. Alutec and Hindalco have been encouraging Nautilus interior solutions to commence the factory to tap into the market. Neither Alutec nor Hindlaco have plans to invest in a fabricating unit, Nautilus interior solutions is foreseeing a huge opportunity. Factory Ã¢â¬â Scaling and playing the volume game Volume game has been the order of the day and Nautilus interior solution is sitting on a great opportunity. The pillar of the volume game will be to set up a factory in Bangalore to meet the demands and spruce up the sales in subsequent years. Unlike Fenesta or Sara LG there is no need to set up the several units (extrusion unit, anodizing unit etc) to manufacture the end product. Since extrusions are supplied by Hindalco and hardware by Alutec, all Nautilus has to do is to set up the fabrication factory in Bangalore. With this factory several markets can be reached. So Nautilus can also service other galleries which are coming up in the country. Alutec has agreed to supply the machines from Italy to set up the factory apart from committing the hardware supply as well. Hindalco has wholeheartedly agreed to supply the extrusions for Nautilus interior solutions, which has the right to buy the extrusions because of the license it holds. The uniqueness of this arrangement: Hindalco will supply the extrusion for the assembly unit owned by the Aluminum Gallery. Hence we have a first mover advantage and if we can tap into the market and establish early, then this model canÃ¢â¬â¢t be replicated. Training of the people: Skilled labor at the factory and execution at the site are two crucial factors for the success of this industry. Alutec has committed to transfer this knowledge to Nautilus, so that the whole model is practical and implementable. Advantages of having own factory: Ã¢â¬ ¢ To tap into the builder market who is looking for large supply Ã¢â¬ ¢ Delivery time: Can cut down the delivery time considerably to meet the project requirements of the architects and builders, since we control the production Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pricing: In a price sensitive market we can compete much more efficiently by controlling the supply chain and not dependent on the parent company completely for the production. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Profits from the wastage: After manufacturing the end product there will be 15 to 20% wastage of aluminum extrusions in the factory. This can either be sold at the metal price or can be used to manufacture low priced products at the unit itself. Projection of the market and sales volume has been done based on the Bangalore production, Market data of the players and inputs from builders, architects and the market growth data. Product line: From premium to economy priced The premium windows from Alutec will drive the image in the market and we can utilize the extra capacity of the factory to manufacture economy priced windows to cater to the price sensitive customers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ High end premium windows: Sialwood from Alutec, Wood finish windows from Alutec. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Commercial purpose: Anodized and powder coated aluminum windows from Alutec Ã¢â¬ ¢ Economy series: Riding on the brand value. This can be manufactured using economical aluminum extrusion and medium priced hardware to cater the price sensitive segment. Fund requirement To materialize this dream Nautilus interior solutions has decided to bring-in external funds. The proposal Seeing the growth divers and the volume model Nautilus has decided to invite a potential investor by offering the equity in the firm. This arrangement is a clear win-win situation for Nautilus and the potential investor. Long term vision Ã¢â¬â To be a premium player in architectural products Since Hindalco has plans to launch and tie up with prominent brand the firm can offer many more architectural products to the target market. Since this is an independent franchisee there is freedom to introduce other life style products to the target audience because of the category we are marketing. Retail experience Aluminum retailing is still in its infancy in India. As the average per capita consumption of aluminum in the country is 0. 70 kg against the developed countries such as the US and Japans at over 25 kg, there is vast scope for making utility and lifestyle products of aluminum so that the consumer choice for material substitution gets widened and he/she would get the real value for the money spent. Since Nautilus has a classy retail gallery in Bangalore, with new additions of the brands and life style products this can be extended to other parts of the Karnataka as well as south. In long terms there will be considerable turnover from the retail customers as well. With Indian architectural skyline witnessing a transition from traditional to the modern the retail presence in the long term can give an unparallel advantage to the firm. Also more and more consumers would be able to take an informed decision on the products they intend to procure for enriching their environment that will be a virtual visual delight. For example: Brand like Hindalco Everlast, Hunter Douglas, trivison and 3-form donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a retail showroom in Bangalore. Since the market is moving more from floor level to touch and feel experience, we have an unparallel advantage with the experiential gallery. Elevating the gallery from aluminum designs to experiencing art Since architectures and builders are also connoisseurs and users of art, we can use the walls of the gallery to promote the art. Since investment in art is on all time high in India, we can spruce up the image and also pull the consumer traffic to the retail outlet. More over this combination will always contribute to the bottom-line as well. Export possibilities: With lower production costs in countries such as India, which can save up to $150 per ton. On the above factor and on the account of the enquiries and discussion from Middle East indicates good export demand for windows and doors. If we can scale the volume and offer a good price the doors can be opened in construction driven market in Middle East. Investment requirement: INR 100 lakhs Note: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Open to giving stake in the company. Percentage of the stake can be decided Giving the exclusive right to the factory set up a guarantee Summary: We strongly believe that if the producers of Aluminum windows get more organized , attain technical competence, increase productivity and production capacity, deliver quality products timely, promote it through sound budget by exploiting mass media campaign with right retail experience, the market for this products will grow exponentially. CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Project appraisal is a generic term that refers to the process of assessing, in a structured way, the case for proceeding with a project or proposal. In short, project appraisal is the effort of calculating a projects viability. It often involves comparing various options, using economic appraisal or some other decision analysis technique. Project appraisal is the process of critical evaluation of the all six facets of the project appraisal, namely: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Technical analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Financial analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Legal Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Market analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ecological Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management Analysis Project appraisal has become the critical and most important as the estimations of the cash flows are based on some parameters, which may not remain static. The future is highly uncertain and hence the guarantee if cash inflow is a questionable concept. The project appraisal mainly considers the things that are tangible and possibly ignoring the arrival of competition into the market in the future. After the enactment of the project also there are things, which may be uncontrollable like government policies, competitors, strategies, etc. , therefore the project appraisal plays an important role. This dissertation study on Ã¢â¬Å"ANALYSIS OF PROJECT APPRAISAL PROCEDURESÃ¢â¬ at Aditya Brila The Aluminum Gallery is concerned with the project appraisal techniques, studying the effectiveness of these procedures and suggests some steps in the direction of high efficiency achievement concerning project appraisal. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM As Adity Brila Aluminum Gallery has opened there new factory in order for expansion it is necessary for a project appraisal. The project financed have to be viable as well as a wrong decision in assessing a project which is not even potentially viable may lead to mounting industrial sickness and wastage of scarce resources. In addition to proper appraisal sanctioned so that corrective steps whenever necessary can be taken in right time. Thus adequate knowledge of the techniques of project appraisal and follow up is necessary on the part of all concerned of new scarce national resources. NEED FOR STUDY In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s highly uncertain and globalize economy, the feasibility and success of the project has become very difficult to predict any changes in one country, one factor may be political and economical and sociological has far reaching effect on the economy and the financial system as a whole. Many of the enterprises, which were earning good amount of profits, became impaired after the liberalization of the economy, thus it is important to take even aspect that is present and future possible changes has to be taken into consideration before a new plant or factory as been opened and thus project appraisal is very important topic and a life blood of a good financial system. IMPORTANCE OF STUDY Industrial projects are appraised by different institutions for a variety of reasons like Government and allied agencies may appraise project with a view to find out whether they should be given tax exemptions, subsidies, guarantees or other incentives. The purpose of appraisal thus varies from one appraising agency to another. While the objects of appraisal may differ, the general principals of appraisal are almost same. Basically the project appraisal is about finding out whether the project is technically feasible and financially viable. Equally important are the marketability of the projects and successfully sell the goods so produced. This is familiarly knows as project appraisal since aluminum gallery new factory outlet deal with fabrication of doors and window it should make sure it is better than the upvc windows and doors. The factors are taken into consideration in the security of individual applications. The weight age given to individual factors varies from order to order, important among those are the type of organization activity of the customers, its size, the nature of the competence, resourcefulness of the promoters, the financial soundness of the project, the quantum of the loan, its profitability etc. , SCOPE OF STUDY The Study covers the operational jurisdiction of Aditya Brila Aluminum Gallery OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ( To study the project appraisal procedure at Aditya Brila Aluminum Gallery ( To know the efficiency of the project appraisal process ( To suggest some measures to overcome the problems in the project appraisal process and make the procedure more effective TYPE OF RESEARCH The research approach used here is exploratory research. It is designed to generate basic knowledge, clarify relevant issues uncover variables associated with a problem, uncover information needs, and/or define alternatives for addressing research objectives. SAMPLING TECNIQUES A cluster sampling technique has been used. In cluster samplings they are to two stages in the first stage a sample of areas is chosen; in the second stage a sample of respondents within those areas is selected. So the sample area is the corporate office of Aditya Brila The Aluminum Gallery Richmond town and the respondents are the employees working in that branch. SAMPLING UNITS It gives the target population that will be sampled. The research was carried out in The Aluminum Gallery, Bangalore. There were 25 respondents they are the employees of the company from different departments. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Research instruments like questionnaire which can be structured and unstructured were issued to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees to analysis the present project appraisal process and procedures. DATA COLLECTION The research includes gathering both Primary and Secondary data. Primary Data The primary data was collected by discussion with the management of Aditya Brila Aluminum Gallery to get information about project appraisal and financing. Analysis of techniques and methods adopted by issuing questionnaire to the employees of the company. An interview schedule was used for the purpose of clarifying doubts which rose during the course of the study. Secondary Data A part of the data was collected from secondary source which would support are research. Some data was extracted from company journals and the annual report like the project cost and balance sheet of the company. Some information was also collected from internet which would be supportive for the research. DATA ANALYSIS AND COMPLETION: After the data has been collected, it was tabulated and the findings of the research were presented followed by analysis and interpretation to reach certain conclusions. Presentation and Analysis of data and Interpretation Table 1: Table to determine whether the respondents feel that the location of the new factory outlet is easy to access sources of raw materials |Raw material easy accessibility |No. of respondents | |Yes | |No | | |Total | | Graph: Graph is to determine whether the new factory outlet location is easy to access raw materials. [pic] Interpretation: The new factory outlet location is easy to access raw materials. Table 2: Table to determine the whether power and other utilities for production are easily available at the new factory outlet. |Raw material easy accessibility |No. f respondents | |Yes | | |No | | |Total | | Graph: Graph is to determine whether the power and other utilities for production are easily available in the new factory outlet. [pic] Interpretation: The power and utilities services are easily available in the new factory outlet. Table 3: Table rating the factors in the process of manufacturing products Factor in the process of manufacturing products |Ratings of number of respondents | | |1 2 3 4 | |Quality of the product |14 7 2 2 | |Its end use |1 2 8 2 | |Latest development |10 7 5 7 | |Principal input | 9 10 12 | |Total |25 25 25 25 | Graph: Graph shows the ratings of the factors in the process of manufacturing products by the respondents. [pic] Interpretation: In the process of manufacturing a product quality of the product is given preference then, the latest development, principal input and then its end use. Table 4: Table determining factors of products mix that hold more preference |Factors of product mix |No. f respondents | |Quality |8 | |performance |10 | |Innovative features |7 | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining factors of product mix that hold more preference. [pic] Interpretation: Performance of the product in the market has more preference in the product mix then quality and innovative features. Table 5: Table determining whether the present plant capacity is sufficient to meet the growing demand for the products |Plant capacity sufficient to meet demand |No. f respondents | |yes |5 | |No |20 | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining whether the present plant capacity is sufficient to meet the growing demand for the products. [pic] Interpretation: The plant capacity is not sufficient to meet the growing demand of the products. Table 6: Table rating the factors of selecting new plant and machinery for the factory outlet. |Factors of selecting new plant and machinery |Ratings of number of respondents | | |1 2 3 4 | |Quality |11 8 4 2 | |Level of technology sophisticated |13 4 8 14 | |The expected delivery schedules |- 8 3 3 | |Performance uarantee |1 5 10 | |Total |25 25 25 25 | Graph: Graph determining the rating of respondents for selecting plant and machinery for new factory outlet. [pic] Interpretation: In the factors of selecting plant and machinery for new outlet level of technology sophisticated is the most preferred factor then, the quality of the machinery, the expected delivery schedules and the required performance guarantee. Table 7: Table determining the period legal analysis is conduct. |Period legal analysis is conducted |No. f respondents | |beginning |8 | |Mid way |17 | |After completion |- | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining the period legal analysis is conducted [pic] Interpretatio n: Most of the legal analysis is conduct in the beginning of the project. Table 8: Table determining whether capital cost is realistic | Is capital cost realistic |No. f respondents | |yes |19 | |No |6 | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining whether capital cost is realistic [pic] Interpretation: The capital cost is realistic Table 9: Table determining whether working capital is sufficient enough to run the wheels of the industry. |Is working capital sufficient |No. f respondents | |yes |16 | |No |9 | |Total |25 | [pic] Interpretation: The working capital is sufficient enough to run the wheels of the industry. Table 10: Table determining the percentage of market share held by the company, compared with the competitors. |Market share |No. of respondents | |15%-25% 17 | |25%-50% |8 | |50%-75% |- | |75%-100% |- | |total |25 | Graph: Graph determining market shares held by the company when compared with the competitors. [pic] Interpretation: The Company holds upto 15% 25% of market shares as compared with the competitors. Table 11: Table determining product that has more demand in the market. |Products |No. f respondents | |Aluminum doors |5 | |Aluminum windows |7 | |Structural glazing |9 | |partition |4 | |total |25 | Graph: Graph determining the product that has more demand in the market. [pic] Interpretation: Structural Glazing has more demand in the market as compared to other products. Table 12: Table determining reasons consumer prefer aluminum product then upvc products. |Reasons consumer prefer aluminum product |No. f respondents | |Green material |12 | |Finishing |8 | |Quality |5 | |total |25 | | | | Graph: Graph determining the reasons consumers prefer aluminum product then upvc product. [pic] Interpretation: The reason consumers prefer aluminum products then upvc product is because aluminum products are green material in nature. Table 13: Table determining whether aluminum product can match up with market demand equalant to upvc pr oducts. |Market demand of aluminum equalant to upvc products |No. f respondents | |yes |17 | |No |8 | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining whether aluminum product can match up with market demand equalant to upvc products. [pic] Interpretation: The market demand for aluminum products can match up with the demand for pvc products. Table 14: Table determining products are rightly priced |Products are
Questions: 1.Explain, using authority, whether or not Sleazy will be able to do so. 2.Prepare some preliminary notes to assist you in protecting your clients interests in purchase of the business. 3.Happy has just returned from overseas and has discovered what has happened. Using authority, advise Happy as to her rights. 4.Give Dr. Bones some preliminary advice on the following matters based on the details he has given you: i)The term of the lease. ii)The sublease to Dr. Bendit. Answers: 1.Cool wants to start a conveyance company and in this regard he took a loan from Sleazy against his property. Cool did not pay any money back to Sleazy after the promised period crossed Sleazy can sell the property. In a mortgage by legal charge or technically "a charge by deed expressed into due by way of legal mortgage", Cool remains the legal owner of the property, but Sleazy (Giordano and Alces 2017) gains sufficient rights over it into enable them through enforce their security, such as a right toward take possession of the property or sell it. In other words, the mortgage is a security for the loan that the lender makes into the borrower. It is a transfer of an interest in land (or the equivalent) from the owner toward the mortgage lender, on the condition that this interest will do returned into the owner when the terms of the mortgage have been satisfied or performed. A mortgage is a security interest in real property held by a lender as a security for a debt, usually a loan of money. A mortgage in itself is not a debt; it is the lender's security for debt. Tax liens, in some cases, will come ahead of mortgages to protect the lender, a mortgage by legal charge is usually recorded in a public register (Swan 2015). Since mortgage debt is often the largest debt owed by the debtor, banks and other mortgage lenders run title searches of the real estate property through make certain that there are no mortgages already registered on the debtor's property which might have higher priority. For this reason, if a borrower has delinquent property taxes, the bank will often pay them toward prevent the lien holder from foreclosing and wiping out the mortgage. A mortgage is the standard method by which individuals and businesses can purchase real estate without the need into pay the full value immediately from their own resources (Salmon 2016). The mortgage loan is used for residential mortgage lending, and commercial mortgage for lending against commercial property. In most jurisdictions mortgages are strongly associated with loans secured on real estate rather than on other property (such as ships) and in some jurisdictions only land may do mortgaged. So we can see that though Cool will be the real owner of the property but as the Title deed of the property was under mortgage, in that case the Sleazy will generate enough right against the property so that he may sell the property or take possession over the property. (Velencoso, Baile and Pradi 2017). In the case, Cool did not pay for the interest of the loan, since taking the property as mortgaged for starting on the business of conveyancing.Thus Sleazy can sell the property to recover the money which he had lend to Cool for the business. The loan should have been repaid by Cool but not a single instalment was paid by him till he was given the loan. Thus Sleazy can sell the property t recover the property (Korngold 2015). 2.In many states, on buying business, the tax authority has the right to come after and find out the seller ho have owed the sales, the use of payroll and other business taxes. After the clearance is issued by the tax authority known as the "clearance letter" saying the seller is current in his sales and use taxes on the closing date. Ask about sales taxes and payroll taxes. If the seller has employees , ask if he was using a payroll service, and make sure the current employment tax payments (Stern 2014). A client wants to purchase a small property as a coffee connection. The sale includes the sale of plant and equipment, stock in hand, goodwill. There are also four staffs employed in the business. A licensed conveyancer assists the client to protect his interest during the purchase of property (McDonnel et al. 2016). As a licensed conveyancer the suggestion would be firstly to offer toward buy the assets of the business, and form a separate company into act as the purchaser. Second, if the money is owed and it is being sued by someone, then it cant be assumed that any of those liabilities if one buys the assets. If the seller is a corporation or LLC, under no circumstances should you buy stock in his business. First, you get a better tax treatment, since your "tax basis" in the assets will do the amount you paid for them, rather than the amount your seller paid for them long ago. If the seller does, he'll have through pay them before the closing takes place. Most states have done away with these, but many states still require the buyer of a business toward notify the seller's creditors that the transaction is going on (Finn 2014). It is to watch out for bulk sales laws. Failure through get a list of the seller's creditors and send "notices of sale" into them may give the seller's creditors a shot at undoing (or "rescinding") the transaction in order into prevent the seller's assets from being sold out from under them. Even if the seller has no creditors at all, which is a rare occurrence, the state tax authority generally wants a copy of the "bulk sales notice" so it can determine if the seller owes any sales, use or other business taxes (Pearce 2015). 3.The mortgage under the Torrens System a registered mortgage is a legal mortgage. The mortgagee could sell (or beneficially retain without selling) the security as the legal document which impose additional statutory preconditions through sale of contractual precondition in the mortgage (most commonly a requirement into service of exercise a power of sale. The Consumer Credit Code and the Farm Debts Mediation Act, they live sold in aid of the mortgagee. With respect through non-monetary defaults the need into serve a section 57(2)(b) notice can either altogether or in lots by public auction or by private. Where a mortgagee is authorised by section 57 (2) into exercise the contract, or both such modes of sale, and subject into such conditions as the (Nelson et al .2015) Sale is outside of the RPA are governed by section 111 (1) of the Conveyance Act. Equitable mortgages There is no power of sale is being exercised by the mortgagee. There is been rectified at the time proceedings had commenced) under the mortgage (Hardman 2017). Avoidance of mortgage agreement as per section 57. Attempting through sell the security by virtue of a power of attorney rather than into that registered mortgagee cannot sell land except by way of the power conferred by power, but rather on requesting the court toward exercise of its discretion through order the property or some sort of default notice, or the mortgage comes within the ambit of legislation. It follows that even if there is a contractual power of sale in the contained in this Act The mortgagee obtains the acts as a charge (rather than a conveyance of the title).Owner of that land, but could not live so until the mortgagors equity of redemption was. Thus any power of sale conferred by the Convincing Act can only live exercised. The mortgage is thus a chattels mortgage and is not governed by the Real shares before the provisions of the Act can live invoked in favour of that mortgage (Nguyen 2014). Typically as part of the mortgage the mortgagee will hold, as a security document, and when the statutory power of sale under RPA section 58 is also exercisable. Section 109(1) of the Convincing Act implies a power of sale to any mortgage. The result is that a mortgagee cannot avoid section 57 of the Real Property Act by mortgagee shall live a sufficient discharge into the purchaser of such land or to be contracted out of under section 58A of the Real Property Act, but that same as section owner of the land (Cook 2017). References Cook, D.J., 2017. WHEN IS A RIGHT OF PUBLICITY LICENSE GRANTED TO A LOAN-OUT CORPORATION A FRAUDULENT CONVEYANCE?.U. Denv. Sports Ent. Law J.,20, pp.1-45. Finn, J.N., 2014. Fit and proper but not solvent: the slow development of financial security as a requirement to legal practice in New Zealand. Giordano, H.S.J. and Alces, P.A., 2017. Personal Property Leasing: Article 2-A of the Uniform Commercial Code.NY Practice Guide: Business and Commercial,3. Hardman, J., 2017. Some Legal Determinants of External Finance in Scotland: A Response to Lord Hodge.Edinburgh Law Review,21(1), pp.30-54. Korngold, G., 2015.Real estate transactions: cases and materials on land transfer, development and finance. West Academic. McDonnell, J.B., Coogan, P.F., Hogan, W.E. and Vagts, D.F., 2016. Fraudulent Conveyances and Revised Article 9.Secured Transactions Under the UCC,1. Nelson, G., Whitman, D., Burkhart, A. and Freyermuth, R., 2014.Real Estate Finance Law, 6th (Hornbook Series). West Academic. Nguyen, X.T., 2014. Financing Innovation: Legal Development of Intellectual Property as Security in Financing, 1845-2014.Ind. L. Rev.,48, p.509. Pearce, R., 2015. Defending an Englishman's Castle Can I Sell My House but Continue Living in It-The North-East Property Buyers Litigation.Denning LJ,27, p.178. Salmon, M., 2016.Women and the law of property in early America. UNC Press Books. Stern, P., 2014. Personal Property Security: Conflict of laws under the PPSA.Law Society Journal: the official journal of the Law Society of New South Wales,52(2), p.38. Swan, M., 2015. Preparing your practice for e-conveyancing.LSJ: Law Society of NSW Journal, (9), p.92. Velencoso, L.M.M., Bailey, S. and Pradi, A. eds., 2017.Transfer of Immovables in European Private Law (Vol. 16). Cambridge University Press.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Performing Arts Performing Arts Essay Adam Buckle January 5th 2001 The poem Trying to show and introduce various ways of writing and making music. Introduce Motifs Process of devising and improvising and performing music How we were able to devise and actually write the piece, refer back to examples. Include Melody, Harmony, Timbre, Texture, and Rhythm. Our performed piece was based upon the poem called Amber written by Jennie Fontana. This was our stimulus and my first impression of the poem was of the sea and waves. This was the overriding theme for the piece, which we were to perform. To introduce us to the end piece we had to first understand what it was we were dealing with, in musical terms. We learnt the basic terms of music and what they meant and we tried to create a little piece which demonstrated at least one of characteristics. The piece, which I created, was based upon tempo and pitch. I played a basic set of notes on the keyboard and then speeded them up and then I stopped, (using silence) and then proceeded to step up an octave. I did this three times. Everybody else in the group did this so we could have some sound recognition about what each sounded like. After this we had to be taught simple ways of writing down music in terms that we could understand. I have had previous lessons in guitar so I know the basic chords and notes, however with the class we learnt how to write it in a way that we used numbers and lines, TAB. The way we were taught to right a minimalist form of notation was to produce dots. Say you were using a drum and you were counting your beats, one, two, three, four. And on every third of the four beats you would hit your drum. We would write this down like this: This gave us a way of remembering the rhythm of the piece and who should be playing what were. This was very useful especially with four people playing instruments. We used this form of notation in a piece we created. This was were we all had percussion instruments and had to come up with 4 lines of 4 bars. We had to use the above notation to create the rhythm and the piece. When it came to rehearsing the major problem was keeping time as we all set off at 1-line intervals. So you had other instruments playing a different set of notes as you were trying to concentrate on yours. However we got through that and we performed what I considered a very good piece of exploratory music. We then after that went on to produce Motifs. These are where they can represent something, conjure up something and can be perceived to be an emotion or character. One of the pieces of motif work which we studied was performed and written by Tschaikovsky. This showed how a simple motif could be changed and adapted to take on what would seem like a completely different melody. This was achieved by either quickening the tempo of the piece of music or playing it in different octaves, to produce more sinister sounds if played within a low octave. I produced a motif which was a basic riff on the piano going up and down the notes within one octave played really softly, this was to suggest loneliness. By now we had a fairly good but basic understanding of the basic concepts of music. This then led us to our final piece. As everybody seemed to have a group I went away and did something myself. This didnt work, as I couldnt play everything that I wanted to play and everything that I wanted to perform. I decided to find myself a group and try and pass, on some ideas. This is where I started using the wave idea and thanks to the keyboards memory banks, the keyboard could play wave sounds at different pitch levels this gave us a background and an introduction to a tone, which we could set for the overall piece. The texture of the sound was of smooth cloth of silk with ripples going through it. This was very effective and instantly produced a relaxed